Effects of Teaching through Problem-Solving (TtPS) on Students’ Metacognition and Academic Performance


  • Joan B. Sionicio
  • Leonila B. Barbacena


effect size, learning, metacognition, problem-solving, teaching


This research investigated the effects of teaching through problem-solving on students’ metacognitive processes, metacognitive awareness and academic performance in mathematics through one group pretest-posttest pre-experimental design. The subjects consisted of an entire class composed of 17 Grade 11 students in one public school in Albay, Philippines. Data were gathered through a test, metacognitive awareness inventory, interview, journal entries and observation. These were analyzed with the aid of descriptive statistics, t-test, and effect size. Results revealed that the metacognitive processes employed by the students were those classified under the knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. Students who utilized metacognitive processes in their tasks often had expected answers than those who did not. Further, teaching through problem-solving affected both students’ metacognitive awareness and academic performance significantly. These findings showed that the more often students reflect on a task, the more often they have the opportunity to modify and refine their efforts. Hence, it is imperative that educators design experiences that could help students optimize their learning by reflecting on their activities, enhancing their metacognition.